The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles (43 kilometers) northwest of the City Hall Square.
The University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark.
Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs.
As the fishing industry thrived in Copenhagen, particularly in the trade of herring, the city began expanding to the north of Slotsholmen.
With the establishment of the Kalmar Union (1397–1523) between Denmark, Norway and Sweden, by about 1416 Copenhagen had emerged as the capital of Denmark when Eric of Pomerania moved his seat to Copenhagen Castle.
After further disasters in the early 19th century when Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre.After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment.This included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts.The literal English translation would be "chapman's haven".Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. Excavations in Pilestræde have also led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century.The annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980.